Site directory category - Construction, repair

Construction, repair

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The construction industry provides the construction of a variety of national industrial and non-industrial objects. The importance of the construction industry as a branch of the national economy is manifested by the purpose of its products.

With its products, this industry creates, improves and develops fixed assets for all branches of material production, provides socio - economic living conditions of the population. Through construction, problems of great social importance are solved, which are to approximate living conditions in urban and rural areas, to reduce the difference between physical and mental work, to strengthen the state's defense capacity, and so on.

No branch of the national economy can develop without construction, because it lays the foundations for the progress of the whole national economic system, determines the ways, rates and proportions of development of its individual divisions.

The construction industry plays a big role in the development of international relations. Economic ties on the construction line are constantly evolving, the exchange of project documentation, experience of construction technology, technical means, joint production of progressive types of building materials and structures, construction of large economic complexes is increasing.

The timing of implementation of the latest advances in scientific and technological progress greatly depends on the level of development of the construction industry itself and the pace of construction. The development of production technology and technological progress in all sectors of the economy are closely linked to the structural improvement of the construction sites. Only in new, rationally constructed structures can the technological processes in all sectors of the economy be fully perfected.

Thus, the construction industry is the industry that, with its products, is the first to launch all national economic and social programs. Construction begins with the initial development of new territories and the use of mineral deposits and other natural resources.

Building complex

A building complex is a collection of branches of material production and design and search works that provide capital construction. The structure of the building complex includes the following branches of material production: construction, industry of building materials, production of building structures and parts.

In some scientific studies, the structure of the building complex is understood more broadly: it also includes construction and road engineering, special infrastructure (research and development organizations, higher and secondary specialized educational institutions, vocational schools, training courses for construction personnel; banking institutions that finance the construction; organizations for the logistics of enterprises that are part of the complex; specialized transport).

The main task of the complex is the creation and updating of the main assets of the national economy. The share of the construction complex in the national economy is quite significant.

Among the industries servicing the construction complex, first of all, one should mention heavy mechanical engineering, the enterprises of which produce almost 2 thousand machines, mechanisms, equipment for the implementation of industrial, housing, road construction, land reclamation, public utilities, as well as for the extraction and production of construction materials. These include excavators, bulldozers, rollers, pipe layers, construction cranes and more. Another extremely important, servicing complex, is the design and search activity. Without production of this industry - design and estimate documentation - construction is impossible.

Development and placement factors

Branches of the construction complex are developing in all districts, but the vast majority of enterprises tend to industrial areas. The location of enterprises of the building complex, in particular the production of building materials, is most influenced by the raw material factor.

Approximation of production to raw material bases is caused by large volumes of raw material costs per unit of production and its low transportability. For example, transportation of sand or gravel by motor transport for 50 km is 10 times more expensive than their extraction. 1.5-2.5 tons of limestone and clay are spent on the production of 1 ton of cement clinker, 1 ton of lime - 2 tons of limestone, and 1 ton of ceramic pipes - up to 1.5 tons of clay. The share of costs of raw materials is 15-25% in the cost structure of products.

A number of industries of the building materials industry gravitate towards the consumer, in particular the production of reinforced concrete products and structures and the production of binders, their products are less transportable than raw materials. However, it is often chosen such options for their placement, which allow to take into account the attraction to the raw material bases and to consumers.

Given the importance of raw materials and consumption factors, there are two groups of industries:

  • mainly raw material orientation: production of cement, asbestos-cement and slate products, refractories, glass, ceramic pipes, lime, etc.;
  • mainly consumer orientation: production of concrete, reinforced concrete products and structures, soft roofs, sanitary wares, etc.

Enterprises associated with the raw material bases have a complete production cycle (eg cement, glass, brick production). A number of enterprises in the areas of consumption work on the semi-finished goods (concrete and reinforced concrete factories, sanitary engineering enterprises).